Podcasts de história

Geronimo Surrenders

Geronimo Surrenders


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Em 4 de setembro de 1886, o líder Apache Geronimo se rende aos EUA. Por 30 anos, o guerreiro nativo americano lutou para proteger a pátria de sua tribo; entretanto, por volta de 1886, os apaches estavam exaustos e irremediavelmente em menor número. O General Nelson Miles aceitou a rendição de Geronimo, tornando-o o último guerreiro nativo americano a ceder formalmente às forças dos EUA e sinalizando o fim das Guerras Indígenas no sudoeste.

Geronimo nasceu em 1829 e cresceu no que hoje é o Arizona e o México. Sua tribo, os Chiricahua Apaches, entraram em confronto com colonos não-nativos que tentavam tomar suas terras. Em 1858, a família de Geronimo foi assassinada por mexicanos. Em busca de vingança, ele mais tarde liderou ataques contra colonos mexicanos e americanos. Em 1874, o governo dos EUA transferiu Geronimo e seu povo de suas terras para uma reserva no centro-leste do Arizona. As condições na reserva eram restritivas e severas e Geronimo e alguns de seus seguidores escaparam.

LEIA MAIS: Como Geronimo evitou a morte e a captura por 25 anos

Durante a próxima década, eles lutaram contra as tropas federais e lançaram ataques contra assentamentos brancos. Durante esse tempo, Geronimo e seus apoiadores foram forçados a voltar várias vezes para a reserva. Em maio de 1885, Geronimo e aproximadamente 150 seguidores fugiram pela última vez. Eles foram perseguidos até o México por 5.000 soldados americanos. Em março de 1886, o general George Crook (1829-90) forçou Geronimo a se render; no entanto, Geronimo escapou rapidamente e continuou seus ataques. O general Nelson Miles (1839–1925) então assumiu a perseguição de Geronimo, forçando-o a se render naquele setembro perto de Fort Bowie ao longo da fronteira Arizona-Novo México.

Geronimo e um bando de apaches foram enviados para a Flórida e depois para o Alabama, terminando na reserva Comanche e Kiowa perto de Fort Sill, Território de Oklahoma. Lá, Geronimo se tornou um fazendeiro de sucesso e se converteu ao cristianismo. Ele participou do desfile inaugural do presidente Theodore Roosevelt em 1905. O líder Apache ditou sua autobiografia, publicada em 1906 como História da vida de Geronimo.

Ele morreu em Fort Sill em 17 de fevereiro de 1909.


Geronimo Rende-se, Encerrando Grandes Guerras Indígenas

Depois de quase 30 anos lutando contra americanos e mexicanos que invadiram sua casa, Geronimo se rendeu em 4 de setembro de 1886.

Nascido em 1829, Geronimo era conhecido por seu povo apache como Goyaalé, ou "aquele que boceja". Na década de 1850, um grupo de soldados mexicanos atacou sua aldeia enquanto ele fazia comércio em uma cidade próxima. Geronimo voltou para casa e encontrou sua mãe, esposa e filhos entre os mortos naquele dia. A partir de então, Geronimo e seus seguidores mataram todos os mexicanos com os quais cruzaram por vingança.

Item # 4902068 - Cartão de Prova do Primeiro Dia de Geronimo

Geronimo passou os 30 anos seguintes travando uma guerra com mexicanos e americanos. Em 1874, ele e sua tribo foram transferidos para uma reserva no Arizona. Geronimo não concordou com os governantes rígidos de lá e liderou seus seguidores em uma série de fugas ousadas ao longo dos anos. Após essas fugas, Geronimo e seu bando de apaches lançaram ataques contra assentamentos brancos, mas sempre foram forçados a voltar para a reserva.

Geronimo fez sua última fuga em maio de 1885, liderando cerca de 150 seguidores. Eles foram seguidos para o México por 5.000 soldados dos EUA e finalmente capturados pelo general George Crook. Ele forçou Geronimo a se render. Mas, como havia feito muitas vezes no passado, Geronimo escapou e lançou mais ataques.

U.S. # UX190 - Cartão do primeiro dia de emissão de Geronimo

Após o fracasso de Crook, o General Nelson Miles foi trazido para perseguir Geronimo. Miles pegou Geronimo perto de Fort Bowie, ao longo da fronteira entre o Arizona e o Novo México. Depois de décadas de luta e anos correndo dezenas de quilômetros por dia, Geronimo e seus homens estavam cansados. Desta vez, Geronimo realmente se rendeu - tornando-se o último guerreiro índio a fazê-lo, encerrando os principais combates das Guerras Indígenas no sudoeste.


História nativa: Geronimo é o último guerreiro nativo a se render

Esta data na história nativa: Em 4 de setembro de 1886, o grande guerreiro Apache Geronimo se rendeu em Skeleton Canyon, Arizona, após lutar por sua terra natal por quase 30 anos. Ele foi o último guerreiro índio americano a se render formalmente aos Estados Unidos.

Nascido em junho de 1829 perto do rio Gila, no Arizona, Geronimo era um jovem de boas maneiras, disse Mark Megehee, especialista em museus do Museu Fort Sill em Oklahoma. Seu nome de nascimento era Goyalkla ou & # x201COne Who Yawns. & # X201D

Aos 17 anos, Geronimo casou-se com Alope, com quem teve três filhos. Sua vida mudou em 1858 quando uma companhia de soldados mexicanos liderada pelo coronel José Maria Carrasco atacou os apaches e assassinou a esposa, mãe e filhos de Geronimo.

E Fox Nation of Oklahoma. & # x201Chat mudou a personalidade de Geronimo. Seus amigos perceberam que ele não era mais brando e agradável de se lidar. Ele era inesperadamente violento e tinha um temperamento forte. Ele ficou muito triste, mas iria acertar as contas. & # X201D

Em suas próprias palavras, traduzido em 1909 e publicado no livro de 1996 Geronimo: sua própria história, Geronimo descreveu o incidente.

& # x201CI descobriu que minha mãe idosa, minha jovem esposa e meus três filhos pequenos estavam entre os mortos, & # x201D ele disse. & # x201CNão havia luzes no acampamento, então, sem ser notado, me virei silenciosamente e parei perto do rio. Não sei quanto tempo fiquei lá, mas quando vi os guerreiros organizando um conselho, tomei meu lugar. & # X201D

Restaram apenas 80 guerreiros, então o chefe ordenou que os sobreviventes voltassem para casa no Arizona, disse Geronimo. Ele tinha & # x201Cnão sobrou nenhum propósito & # x201D porque ele & # x201Chad perdeu tudo. & # X201D

& # x201CI nunca mais ficou satisfeito em nossa casa silenciosa, & # x201D ele escreveu. “

Geronimo liderou um bando de guerreiros apaches por todo o sul do Arizona e Novo México, mantendo com sucesso os colonos brancos longe das terras apaches por décadas e se tornando um símbolo da liberdade indomada do oeste americano. & # X201D

& # x201CHe não era apenas um cara durão, mas tinha habilidades de liderança & # x201D Megehee disse. & # x201CHe cuidou de homens, mulheres e crianças de uma forma que todas as suas necessidades fossem atendidas. Geronimo fez mais com menos. No vocabulário de hoje & # x2019, ele multiplicou sua força furtivamente, por poder de fogo e por mobilidade. & # X201D

Em 1886, porém, Geronimo estava cansado. Depois de liderar 39 apaches pelo sudoeste, correndo até 80 milhas por dia para ficar à frente de 5.000 soldados brancos, Geronimo se rendeu ao General Nelson A. Miles em 4 de setembro.

Miles, em suas memórias, descreveu Geronimo como & # x201Cone dos homens mais brilhantes, resolutos e de aparência determinada que já encontrei. & # X201D

Após seu julgamento, Geronimo foi posto para trabalhar como prisioneiro de guerra, realizando trabalhos pesados ​​para a ferrovia South Pacific. Isso violou o acordo que ele fez com os EUA quando se rendeu.

Ele passou o resto de sua vida como prisioneiro de guerra e batedor do Exército dos EUA, embora tenha ganhado popularidade como atração na Feira Mundial de St. Louis e nos shows do Velho Oeste. Ele também foi um dos seis índios que marcharam no desfile de posse do presidente Theodore Roosevelt em 1905.

Ele morreu em Fort Sill, Oklahoma, em 1909, ainda na folha de pagamento federal como escuteiro.


Apelo de Geronimo a Theodore Roosevelt

Quando ele nasceu, ele tinha uma disposição tão sonolenta que seus pais o chamaram Goyahkla& # 8212Aquele que boceja. Ele viveu a vida de um membro da tribo Apache em relativo silêncio por três décadas, até que liderou uma expedição comercial das montanhas Mogollon ao sul do México em 1858. Ele deixou o acampamento Apache para fazer alguns negócios na Casa Grandes e voltou para encontrar os soldados mexicanos havia massacrado as mulheres e crianças que haviam ficado para trás, incluindo sua esposa, mãe e três filhos pequenos. & # 8220 Fiquei parado até que tudo tivesse passado, mal sabendo o que faria, & # 8221 ele se lembraria. & # 8220Eu não tinha arma, nem quase queria lutar, nem pensei em recuperar os corpos de meus entes queridos, pois isso era proibido. Não orei, nem decidi fazer nada em particular, pois não tinha mais propósito. & # 8221

Ele voltou para casa e queimou sua tenda e os pertences de sua família. Em seguida, ele liderou um ataque a um grupo de mexicanos em Sonora. Dir-se-ia que depois que uma de suas vítimas gritou por misericórdia em nome de São Jerônimo & # 8212Jeronimo em espanhol & # 8212 os apaches tinham um novo nome para Goyahkla. Logo o nome provocou medo em todo o Ocidente. Enquanto os imigrantes invadiam as terras dos nativos americanos, forçando os indígenas a fazerem reservas, o guerreiro Geronimo se recusou a ceder.

Nascido e criado em uma área ao longo do rio Gila que agora está na fronteira do Arizona com o Novo México, Geronimo passaria o próximo quarto de século atacando e fugindo das tropas mexicanas e americanas, jurando matar o máximo de homens brancos que pudesse. Ele tinha como alvo os imigrantes e seus trens, e os atormentados colonos brancos no oeste americano eram conhecidos por assustar seus filhos malcomportados com a ameaça de que Geronimo viesse atrás deles.

Geronimo (terceiro da direita, na frente) e seus companheiros prisioneiros Apache a caminho do campo de prisioneiros de guerra em Fort Pickens em Pensacola, Flórida, em 1886. (Wikipedia)

Em 1874, depois que imigrantes brancos exigiram intervenção militar federal, os apaches foram forçados a uma reserva no Arizona. Geronimo e um bando de seguidores escaparam, e as tropas dos EUA o seguiram implacavelmente pelos desertos e montanhas do oeste. Em grande desvantagem numérica e exausto por uma perseguição que durou 3.000 milhas & # 8212 e que incluiu a ajuda de batedores Apache & # 8212, ele finalmente se rendeu ao General Nelson A. Miles em Skeleton Canyon, Arizona em 1886 e entregou seu rifle Winchester e faca Sheffield Bowie. Ele estava "ansioso por fazer os melhores termos possíveis", observou Miles. Geronimo e seus & # 8220renegades & # 8221 concordaram em um exílio de dois anos e posterior retorno à reserva.

Em Nova York, o presidente Grover Cleveland preocupou-se com os termos. Em um telegrama para seu secretário de guerra, Cleveland escreveu: & # 8220 Espero que nada seja feito com Geronimo que nos impeça de tratá-lo como prisioneiro de guerra, se não pudermos enforcá-lo, o que eu preferiria. & # 8221

Geronimo evitou a execução, mas a disputa sobre os termos da rendição garantiu que ele passaria o resto de sua vida como prisioneiro do Exército, sujeito à traição e à indignidade. O líder Apache e seus homens foram enviados em um vagão de carga, sob forte guarda, para Fort Pickens em Pensacola, Flórida, onde realizaram trabalhos forçados. Nesse clima estranho, o Washington Post relatado, o Apache morreu & # 8220 como moscas na época da geada & # 8221 Os empresários de lá logo tiveram a ideia de fazer Geronimo servir como uma atração turística, e centenas de visitantes diariamente podiam entrar no forte para ver os & # 8220 sedentos de sangue & # 8221 índio em sua cela.

Enquanto os prisioneiros de guerra estavam na Flórida, o governo transferiu centenas de seus filhos de sua reserva no Arizona para a Carlisle Indian Industrial School, na Pensilvânia. Mais de um terço dos alunos morreu rapidamente de tuberculose & # 8220 morreu como se tivesse sido atacado pela peste & # 8221 o Publicar relatado. Os apaches viviam em constante terror de que mais filhos fossem tirados deles e enviados para o leste.

Estudantes indianos enviados para a Carlisle Indian Industrial School, na Pensilvânia, morreram às centenas de doenças infecciosas. (Wikipedia)

Geronimo e seus companheiros prisioneiros de guerra se reuniram com suas famílias em 1888, quando os Chiricahua Apaches foram transferidos para o quartel Mount Vernon, no Alabama. Mas lá, também, os apaches começaram a morrer & # 8212 um quarto deles de tuberculose & # 8212 até Geronimo e mais de 300 outros foram trazidos para Fort Sill, Oklahoma, em 1894. Embora ainda estivessem em cativeiro, eles foram autorizados a viver em aldeias ao redor do publicar. Em 1904, Geronimo recebeu permissão para aparecer na Feira Mundial de St. Louis & # 8217s de 1904, que incluiu uma exposição & # 8220Apache Village & # 8221 no meio do caminho.

Ele foi apresentado como uma peça viva de museu em uma exposição que pretendia ser um & # 8220monumento para o progresso da civilização. & # 8221 Sob a guarda, ele fazia arcos e flechas enquanto mulheres pueblo sentadas ao lado dele socavam milho e faziam cerâmica, e ele era um sorteio popular. Ele vendeu autógrafos e posou para fotos com quem se dispusesse a abrir mão de alguns dólares pelo privilégio.

Geronimo pareceu gostar da feira. Muitas das exibições o fascinaram, como um show de mágica durante o qual uma mulher se sentou em uma cesta coberta com um pano e um homem passou a enfiar as espadas na cesta. & # 8220Eu gostaria de saber como ela foi curada tão rapidamente e por que as feridas não a mataram & # 8221 Geronimo disse a um escritor. Ele também viu um & # 8220 urso branco & # 8221 que parecia ser & # 8220 tão inteligente quanto um homem & # 8221 e podia fazer tudo o que seu guardião instruía. & # 8220Estou certo de que nenhum urso-pardo poderia ser treinado para fazer essas coisas & # 8221 observou ele. Ele deu seu primeiro passeio em uma roda-gigante, onde as pessoas abaixo & # 8220 não pareciam maiores do que formigas. & # 8221

Em suas memórias ditadas, Geronimo disse que estava feliz por ter ido à feira e que os brancos eram & # 8220 um povo gentil e pacífico. & # 8221 Ele acrescentou: & # 8220 Durante todo o tempo em que estive na feira, ninguém tentou me prejudicar de alguma forma. Se isso tivesse acontecido entre os mexicanos, tenho certeza de que teria sido compelido a me defender com frequência. & # 8221

Depois da feira, a mostra Pawnee Bill & # 8217s Wild West negociou um acordo com o governo para que Geronimo participasse da feira, novamente sob a guarda do Exército. Os índios no show Pawnee Bill & # 8217s foram descritos como monstros & # 8220 ladrões, traiçoeiros, assassinos & # 8221 que mataram centenas de homens, mulheres e crianças e não pensariam em arrancar o couro cabeludo de qualquer membro do público, dado o chance. Os visitantes vieram ver como o & # 8220savage & # 8221 tinha sido & # 8220 domesticado & # 8221 e pagaram a Geronimo para tirar um botão do casaco do perverso Apache & # 8220chief. & # 8221 Não importa que ele nunca tenha sido um chefe e, de fato, irritou-se quando foi referido como tal.

Os programas colocavam muito dinheiro em seus bolsos e permitiam que ele viajasse, embora nunca sem guardas do governo. Se Pawnee Bill queria que ele atirasse em um búfalo de um carro em movimento, ou o acusasse de & # 8220 o pior índio que já existiu & # 8221 Geronimo estava disposto a jogar junto. & # 8220O índio, & # 8221 uma revista mencionada na época, & # 8220 sempre será um objeto fascinante. & # 8221

Em março de 1905, Geronimo foi convidado para o desfile inaugural do presidente Theodore Roosevelt & # 8217, ele e cinco chefes indígenas reais, que usavam capacete completo e rostos pintados, cavalgaram pela Avenida Pensilvânia. A intenção, afirmou um jornal, era mostrar aos americanos & # 8220 que eles enterraram a machadinha para sempre. & # 8221

Geronimo (o segundo da direita, na frente) e cinco chefes nativos americanos participaram do desfile do dia da inauguração do presidente Theodore Roosevelt em 1905. (Biblioteca do Congresso)

Após o desfile, Geronimo se reuniu com Roosevelt no que o New York Tribune relatado foi um & # 8220 apelo patético & # 8221 para permitir que ele retornasse ao Arizona. & # 8220Tire as cordas de nossas mãos & # 8221 Geronimo implorou, com lágrimas & # 8220 correndo por suas bochechas cheias de cicatrizes de balas. & # 8221 Por meio de um intérprete, Roosevelt disse a Geronimo que o índio tinha um & # 8220 coração ruim. & # 8221 & # 8220Você matou muitos do meu povo, queimou aldeias & # 8230 e não eram bons índios. & # 8221 O presidente teria que esperar um pouco & # 8220 e ver como você e seu povo agem & # 8221 em suas reservas.

Geronimo gesticulou & # 8220wildly & # 8221 e a reunião foi interrompida. & # 8220O Grande Pai está muito ocupado & # 8221 um membro da equipe disse a ele, conduzindo Roosevelt e instando Geronimo a colocar suas preocupações por escrito. Roosevelt foi informado de que o guerreiro Apache estaria mais seguro na reserva em Oklahoma do que no Arizona: & # 8220Se ele voltasse lá, ele & # 8217d provavelmente encontraria uma corda esperando por ele, pois muitas pessoas no Território estão ansiosas por uma chance de matá-lo. & # 8221

Geronimo voltou para Fort Sill, onde os jornais continuaram a descrevê-lo como um & # 8220 chefe apache sedento de sangue & # 8221 vivendo com a & # 8220 inquietação feroz de um animal enjaulado. & # 8221 Custou ao Tio Sam mais de um milhão de dólares e centenas de vidas para mantê-lo atrás de fechadura e chave, o Boston Globe relatado. Mas o Hartford Courant deixou Geronimo & # 8220 se enquadrando nas faces & # 8221 porque ele era tão astuto no pôquer que manteve os soldados & # 8220 quebrados quase o tempo todo. & # 8221 Seus ganhos, observou o jornal, foram usados ​​para ajudar a pagar os custos de educar crianças Apache.

Os jornalistas que o visitaram descreveram Geronimo como sendo & # 8220louco & # 8221, às vezes perseguindo turistas a cavalo enquanto bebia em excesso. Sua oitava esposa, foi relatado, o havia abandonado, e apenas uma filha pequena estava cuidando dele.

Em 1903, no entanto, Geronimo se converteu ao cristianismo e se juntou à Igreja Reformada Holandesa & # 8212Roosevelt & # 8217s church & # 8212esperando agradar ao presidente e obter o perdão. & # 8220Meu corpo está doente e meus amigos me jogaram fora & # 8221 Geronimo disse aos membros da igreja. & # 8220Eu tenho sido um homem muito perverso e meu coração não está feliz. Vejo que os brancos encontraram um caminho que os torna bons e seus corações felizes. Quero que me mostre esse caminho. & # 8221 Solicitado a abandonar todas as superstições & # 8220 & # 8221 indianas & # 8221, bem como o jogo e o uísque, Geronimo concordou e foi batizado, mas a igreja mais tarde o expulsaria por sua incapacidade de se manter afastado das mesas de jogo.

Ele agradeceu a Roosevelt (& # 8220chefe de um grande povo & # 8221) profusamente em suas memórias por lhe dar permissão para contar sua história, mas Geronimo nunca teve permissão de retornar à sua terra natal. Em fevereiro de 1909, ele foi arremessado do cavalo uma noite e deitado no chão frio antes de ser descoberto após o amanhecer. Ele morreu de pneumonia em 17 de fevereiro.

Geronimo (centro, de pé) na Feira Mundial de St. Louis & # 8217s em 1904. (Biblioteca do Congresso)

o Chicago Daily Tribune publicou o título, & # 8220Geronimo agora um bom índio & # 8221, aludindo a uma citação amplamente e erroneamente atribuída ao general Philip Sheridan. O próprio Roosevelt resumiria seus sentimentos da seguinte maneira: & # 8220Eu não vou tão longe a ponto de pensar que os únicos índios bons são índios mortos, mas acredito que nove em cada dez são, e não gostaria de perguntar muito de perto no caso do décimo. & # 8221

Após um serviço cristão e um grande cortejo fúnebre composto por brancos e nativos americanos, Geronimo foi enterrado em Fort Sill. Só então ele deixou de ser um prisioneiro dos Estados Unidos.

Artigos: & # 8220Geronimo Quadrado com os Palefaces, & # 8221 The Hartford Courant, 6 de junho de 1900. & # 8221 & # 8220Geronimo custou ao tio Sam $ 1.000.000 & # 8221 Boston Daily Globe, 25 de abril de 1900. & # 8220Geronimo Has Gone Mad, & # 8221 New York Times, 25 de julho de 1900. & # 8220Geronimo in Prayer & # 8221 The Washington Post, 29 de novembro de 1903. & # 8220Geronimo Parece Crazy & # 8221 New York Tribune, 19 de maio de 1907. & # 8220Geronimo na Feira Mundial & # 8217s & # 8221 Suplemento da Scientific American, 27 de agosto de 1904. & # 8220Prisioneiro de 18 anos, & # 8221 Boston Daily Globe, 18 de setembro de 1904. & # 8220Chiefs in the Parade, & # 8221 Washington Post, 3 de fevereiro de 1905. & # 8220Indians at White House, & # 8221 New York Tribune, 10 de março de 1905. & # 8220Savage Indian Chiefs, & # 8221 The Washington Post, 5 de março de 1905. & # 8220Indians on the Inaugural March & # 8221 por Jesse Rhodes, Smithsonian, 14 de janeiro de 2009. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/specialsections/heritage/Indians-on-the-Inaugural-March.html & # 8220Geronimo Wants His Freedom & # 8221 Boston Daily Globe, 28 de janeiro de 1906. & # 8220Geronimo Joins the Church, Esperando para agradar Roosevelt, & # 8221 The Atlanta Constitution, 10 de julho de 1907. & # 8220A Bad Indian & # 8221 The Washington Post, 24 de agosto de 1907. & # 8220Geronimo Now Good Indian & # 8221 Chicago Daily Tribune, 18 de fevereiro de 1909. & # 8220Chefe Geronimo Buried, & # 8221 New York Times, 19 de fevereiro de 1909. & # 8220Chief Geronimo Dead, & # 8221 New York Tribune, 19 de fevereiro de 1909. & # 8220Native America Prisoners of War: Chircahua Apaches 1886-1914, The Museum of the American Indian, http://www.chiricahua-apache.com/ & # 8220 & # 8217A Very Kind and Peaceful People & # 8217: Geronimo and the World & # 8217s Fair, & # 8221 por Mark Sample, 3 de maio de 2011, http://www.samplereality.com/2011/05/03/a-very-kind-and-peaceful-people- geronimo-and-the-worlds-fair / & # 8220Geronimo: Finding Peace, & # 8221 por Alan MacIver, Vision.org, http://www.vision.org/visionmedia/article.aspx?id=12778

Livros: Geronimo, Geronimo & # 8217s Story of His Life, Retirado e editado por S. M. Barrett, superintendente de educação, Lawton, Oklahoma, Duffield & amp Company, 1915.


Geronimo & # 8217s Last Surrender

Em 5 de setembro de 1886, o Brigadeiro General Nelson A. Miles enviou um telegrama a seus superiores em Washington, D.C., anunciando que a guerra de 16 meses com Geronimo e Naiche havia finalmente acabado. Uma era também acabou. Vinte e cinco anos de guerra intermitente entre os apaches Chiricahua e os americanos haviam alcançado seu destino final e inevitável. Na vanguarda da resistência estava Geronimo, um xamã Chiricahua que participou de praticamente todos os grandes incidentes entre seu povo e os americanos durante o último quarto de século. Ele não era um chefe no sentido tradicional. Sua autoridade tribal prevaleceu sobre parentes e amigos íntimos. Mesmo assim, a maioria dos Chiricahuas reconhecia que tinha poderes quase sobrenaturais: uma capacidade inquestionável de prever os movimentos do inimigo e o resultado das batalhas.

Durante seu último vôo da reserva em 17 de maio de 1885, ele conseguiu convencer apenas 143 seguidores (41 guerreiros) a se juntar a ele. Mais da metade foi embora apenas porque entraram em pânico quando Geronimo lhes contou uma mentira, que seus homens haviam matado o agente. O restante da tribo, cerca de 385 indivíduos, havia permanecido na reserva. Na esperança de acabar rapidamente com a guerra, 60 dos 80 homens Chiricahua se alistaram como batedores para os militares. Eles eram liderados por Chatto, um chefe de 40 anos, que realizaria o serviço de yeoman & # 8217s durante a campanha de 1885. Sem os batedores Apache (que incluíam os apaches ocidentais), os militares teriam feito pouco.

Hoje, no 120º aniversário da rendição de Geronimo & # 8217s em 3 de setembro, Chatto e Geronimo se tornaram os rostos das facções de paz e guerra, os personagens simbólicos da última guerra Apache significativa da nação. Depois que Geronimo capitulou formalmente em Skeleton Canyon no Território do Arizona, o General Miles enviou os hostis para a Flórida, onde foram mantidos sob controle militar e classificados como prisioneiros de guerra. A decisão de Miles & # 8217 foi justa, pois na década anterior Geronimo havia deixado reservas em quatro ocasiões (em 1876, 1878, 1881 e 1885), fugindo para Sierra Madre, no México.

Miles então fez uma recomendação, esta injusta. Ele pediu a seus superiores que autorizassem a remoção de toda a tribo Chiricahua para a Flórida. Ele não valorizou as contribuições feitas por Chatto e os 60 batedores Chiricahua. E ele propositalmente ignorou o fato inconveniente de que 385 chiricahuas não apenas viveram pacificamente na reserva, mas nunca forneceram ajuda ou recrutas aos hostis. Ele argumentou que a reserva era um terreno fértil para novos líderes, o que implica que os descontentes se juntaram ao Geronimo. Seus argumentos capciosos convenceram o secretário da Guerra William Endicott e o presidente Grover Cleveland a aprovar sua traição flagrante. Aqueles que ajudaram Brig. O general George Crook e Miles para acabar com a guerra sofreram o mesmo destino daqueles que invadiram e mataram cidadãos dos Estados Unidos e do México. Miles os enviou para a Flórida, onde também foram classificados como prisioneiros de guerra sob controle do Departamento de Guerra. Incrivelmente, essa designação continuou por 27 anos.

Embora lembrados hoje por seu desprezo um pelo outro, Geronimo e Chatto tiveram uma história semelhante. Cada um passou seus primeiros anos morando com Mangas Coloradas, que era o tio de Chatto. Cada um lembrava vividamente a traição militar da década de 8217 contra Cochise e Mangas Coloradas no início da década de 1860, que deixou a tribo desconfiada dos americanos e contribuiu poderosamente para a contenda nas décadas de 1870 e 1880. Cada um foi capturado em Ojo Caliente pelo agente indiano John Clum, que os acorrentou antes de transferi-los para San Carlos. Finalmente, em setembro de 1881, temendo que os soldados americanos planejassem prendê-los, cada um saltou da reserva para o México. Chatto explicou que falar de tropas deixou [Geronimo] nervoso [como] um animal selvagem.

Por razões não totalmente claras, uma vez no México a amizade acabou. Então, a tragédia atingiu Chatto. Na manhã gelada de 24 de janeiro de 1883, índios Tarahumara de Chihuahua surpreenderam um acampamento Chiricahua, matando cerca de 20 e capturando 33, incluindo a esposa e dois filhos de Chatto & # 8217. A perda o devastou, perseguindo-o pelos próximos 50 anos. Seu coração estava doente de tristeza. Poucos meses depois, Chatto liderou um famoso ataque aos territórios do Arizona e Novo México que capturou um jovem branco, Charlie McComas. Logo depois, Chatto organizou um grupo de guerra para atacar Chihuahua. Seu objetivo eram cativos, que planejava trocar por sua família. Enquanto ele estava ausente, entretanto, os batedores Apache ocidentais do capitão Emmet Crawford e # 8217s surpreenderam o acampamento-base de Chatto e # 8217s. Todos os chefes aceitaram a oferta de Crook & # 8217 para retornar à Reserva de San Carlos. O general levou cerca de 300 com ele, deixando 200 para entrar logo depois. Chatto ficou para trás, esperando recuperar sua família. As negociações com Chihuahua, no entanto, fracassaram e ele finalmente voltou a San Carlos em fevereiro de 1884. Chatto explicou seu atraso ao capitão Crawford: Se você estivesse na minha posição com seus parentes em cativeiro, acho que teria feito o mesmo.

Chatto se adaptou rapidamente à vida de reserva, mas o pensamento de sua família o consumia. Quando conheceu o general Crook em maio de 1884, Chatto pediu-lhe ajuda para libertar seu povo detido no México. No ano seguinte, o general fez tudo ao seu alcance, instando as autoridades em Washington a escreverem às autoridades mexicanas sobre os cativos. Para mostrar sua gratidão, Chatto se alistou como batedor em 1º de julho de 1884. O tenente Britton Davis, o agente Chiricahuas & # 8217 perto do Forte Apache, o nomeou sargento. Os dois desenvolveram uma forte amizade baseada na confiança. Davis mais tarde caracterizaria Chatto como um dos melhores homens, Vermelho ou Branco, que já conheci.

Crook se sentiu especialmente traído pela revolta final de Geronimo e # 8217. Ele disse a Davis para dizer à reserva Chiricahuas que ele teria que suspender os esforços para recuperar seus prisioneiros até que os tempos de paz sejam restaurados. Chatto assumiu o comando da reserva. Ele organizou uma dança de guerra para os batedores e depois saiu para perseguir os hostis. Chatto surpreendeu um acampamento, capturando 15 mulheres e crianças. Anos depois, ele se lembrou da época árdua e perigosa: eu carregava um cinto de cartucho duplo com 45 a 50 cartuchos em cada um. Meu rifle estava carregado e meu dedo no gatilho seguindo novos rastros de hostis, sem saber quando uma bala poderia passar pela minha testa. Chatto era amigo dos dois guias Chiricahua, Martine e Kayitah, que ajudaram o Exército a localizar o acampamento do líder indescritível & # 8217s no México. Na verdade, Chatto havia recomendado Martine, que levou o tenente Charles Gatewood para se encontrar com Geronimo em 25 de agosto.

Geronimo e Chatto permanecem controversos entre seu próprio povo. Para alguns, Geronimo foi o último dos patriotas Chiricahua, lutando para preservar seu modo de vida. Para outros, entretanto, ele havia sobrevivido ao seu tempo. Os que permaneceram na reserva acharam que Chatto estava do lado certo. No entanto, alguns seguidores de Geronimo, incapazes de avaliar as razões da decisão de Chatto & # 8217, consideraram-no um traidor.

Os historiadores estão apenas começando a entender por que Chatto serviu tão ansiosamente como batedor para Crook. A animosidade pessoal contra Geronimo era talvez um motivo, mas outro era a gratidão a Crook por tentar recuperar sua família. Infelizmente, sem a cooperação do México com o # 8217, mesmo o general não poderia conseguir um resultado feliz.

Geronimo alcançou uma notoriedade concedida a apenas alguns índios americanos. Pode-se argumentar que sua fama deriva do fato de que sua rendição em 1886 efetivamente marcou o fim da resistência indígena na América do Norte.

Este outrora obscuro guerreiro Apache, nem mesmo reconhecido pela maioria dos americanos até que ele tinha cerca de 50 anos, hoje se tornou uma lenda de proporções míticas, e sua fama continua a crescer continuamente.

Este artigo foi escrito por Edwin R. Sweeney e publicado originalmente na edição de outubro de 2006 da Oeste selvagem Revista. Para mais artigos excelentes, inscreva-se em Oeste selvagem revista hoje!


The Apache Wars: A Timeline Parte 5 & # 8211 Geronimo Surrenders

Anteriormente: In the Apache Wars: A Timeline Parte 4 Lozen deixa sua marca: Victorio morre. Se você perdeu o início da linha do tempo do Apache Wars, clique aqui.

Nenhum ataque ao Apache ocorre no Arizona este ano, o primeiro em pelo menos 10 anos. Os apaches pareciam bastante satisfeitos com suas respectivas reservas e estão se ajustando a um modo de vida agrícola. Isso vai mudar. E Geronimo será o agente de mudança.

Como tal, ele será vilipendiado por aqueles Chiricahua Apaches que queriam ficar nas reservas e em paz com os Olhos Brancos. Geronimo será culpado pela decisão do governo dos EUA de enviar todos os Chiricahuas, incluindo os escuteiros leais, para a Flórida ou Alabama. Aqui eles perderão tudo: não apenas sua pátria, mas sua cultura - idioma, religião e até mesmo seus filhos. A tribo será quase totalmente exterminada por doenças e negligência.

Em contraste, Geronimo alcançará o status de super-herói entre aqueles que desejam permanecer livres e lutar até uma morte honrosa por seu povo, sua terra natal e seu modo de vida (que inclui embriagar-se com tizwin e espancar suas esposas).

1885-maio

Geronimo está bêbado e intimidado por editoriais de jornais que exigem sua morte. Ele e um pequeno bando de guerreiros escapam novamente para o México, onde continuam a atacar e matar, principalmente para obter comida, munição e cavalos.

O "Poder" de Geronimo que o avisa do perigo iminente, não surpreendentemente, coincide com sua paranóia bem fundada, baseada nas muitas vezes que os apaches foram enganados, enganados, esfomeados, humilhados e mortos pelos militares dos EUA e agentes indianos.

Na reserva, rumores voam. O que Geronimo ouve é que o capitão Davis foi autorizado a matá-lo e a Mangus. Muitos anos depois, Chatto, que se tornou o batedor de maior confiança do General Crooks, disse: "Falar sobre tropas tornava Geronimo um animal selvagem". consulte Mais informação

1885-maio: a mentira

Geronimo ainda é um prisioneiro de guerra na fotografia de 1903.

Geronimo trama um plano para persuadir os relutantes Chiricahuas liderados pelos chefes Naiche e Chihuahua a segui-lo em um êxodo em massa da reserva para o México.

O plano de Geronimo inclui fazer com que seus primos, Fun e Tisna, matem o capitão Davis e o escoteiro Chiricahua Chatto, dois dos quais confiam os militares dos EUA e a reserva Chiricahuas.

Geronimo knows that with Davis and Chatto dead, the reservation Chiricahuas, particularly the Apache scouts, will feel hopelessly vulnerable and will then follow him in a desperate attempt to escape to Northern Mexico and continue the good fight.

The charismatic Chief Chihuahua fears that Crook will deport him to Alcatraz. Chiefs Naiche and Chihuahua throw their support in favor of Geronimo's plan to escape from the reservation when Geronimo tells them that Davis and Chatto are already dead. It's a lie. It's a lie that will have devastating consequences for the Chiricahuas and divide the Apaches between those who want the relative comfort and security of the reservation and those who prefer an arduous life on the warpath defending their ancestral homeland against the despised White Eyes and Mexicans.

When Chief Chihuahua realizes he has put the lives of his people in serious danger because of Geronimo's lie, he vows to kill the shaman-turned-war-chief. Had he been successful, it is likely the war would have ended and the remaining hostiles would have returned peacefully to the San Carlos Reservation.

But the war continued and President Cleveland, with the support of his Secretary of War and Lt. General Phil Sheridan, decides the fate of all Chiricahuas, not just the hostiles.

Lozen fights alongside Geronimo and his few remaining warriors in a desperate attempt to survive and not be herded back to the San Carlos Reservation. Unbeknownst to them, this is the last campaign in the Apache Wars. Pursued relentlessly, she uses her mysterious power to sense the whereabouts and strength of the U.S. and Mexican cavalries.

Alexander Adams writes in his book, Geronimo, "she would stand with her arms outstretched, chant a prayer to Ussen, the Apaches’ supreme deity, and slowly turn around." (until she senses the presence and number of the enemy and the direction of their impending attack.)

1886-January

Leading General Crooks second expedition into Mexico in pursuit of the renegade Apaches led by Geronimo, Captain Crawford and his scouts are attacked by Mexican militia led Mauricio Corredor. One of Corredor's scouts claimed to have shot and killed Chief Victorio six years earlier at Cerro Tres Castillos. (The Indian version has Victorio fall on his own knife rather than be captured and tortured by the despised Mexicans.)

Crawford attempts to get the Mexicans to cease fire by waving a white handkerchief so he can explain to Corredor that his troops and scouts are in pursuit of the Apaches. The Mexicans don't listen and one shoots Crawford in the head.

Dutchy, one of the Apache scouts, pulls the mortally wounded Crawford to safety, and then kills the Mexican who had shot him. He then kills the Mexican commander.

1886-Spring

Crook's army and Chiricahua Apache scouts, now led by Chatto, go after Geronimo and his warriors. They catch up with them again just over the Mexico border in March. At first, there are negotiations and hope that Geronimo will surrender.

March 1886. Gen. Crook (rt in round hat) tries to peruade Geronimo to surrender unconditionally.

Crook is only authorized to negotiate unconditional surrender, but Geronimo refuses. Crook makes concessions. He tells Geronimo that, if he and his people give up, they will be confined in the East with their families for NOT MORE THAN TWO YEARS then be returned to Arizona. Geronimo accepts these terms.

That night, Naiche, Geronimo and their little band get roaring drunk, reconsider their surrender, and disappear into the mountains. Crook’s vast army with all its Apache scouts cannot catch them.

After the conference with General Crook (March 1886) Naiche and Geronimo head back to the relative security of the Sierra Madre Mountains in Northern Mexico as fast as they can. With Naiche is his 3rd wife Ha-o-zinne.

Crook is ridiculed unmercifully in the newspapers. But far worse for his command, Crook received word from the President through Gen. Sheridan that the government will accept only unconditional surrender, and orders to renegotiate with Geronimo & Naiche.

Crook knows that this would be impossible. More important to Crook is his honor. He negotiated concessions with the hostiles in good faith and cannot now go back on his word. He asks Sheridan to relieve him of command.

Sheridan quickly complies.

In April, General Crook, who had tried to help the Apaches on their reservations, is replaced by the arrogant, pompous, shamelessly self-promoting General Miles. He deploys over two dozen heliograph points to coordinate the movements of 5,000 soldiers, 500 Apache scouts, 100 Navajo scouts, and thousands of civilian militia against Geronimo and his 24 exhausted warriors who, in order to survive, continue raiding in Northern Mexico.

(Note. The heliograph signaling system was Miles solution to poor communications and coordination in pursuit of the hostiles. Their use was one of the ways Miles employed to distinguish his campaign from his failed predecessor's. Despite Mile's claims to the contrary, the heliograph system was of little benefit to his pursuing army in locating the hostiles. The hostiles moved primarily at night. No sun, no heliograph signal. You can see a heliograph machine at the Fort Lowell Museum at 2900 N. Craycroft Road in Tucson.)

September 3, 1886

Lt. Charles Gatewood, now reporting to Miles, leads a party of 6, including himself, an interpreter, 2 packers and 2 Chiricahua scouts, in an exhausting pursuit of Naiche and Geronimo. Later that summer, scouts Kayihtah and Martine guide Lieutenant Gatewood to the Naiche and Geronimo camp.

Gatewood tells Naiche that his mother, wife and daughter have been shipped to Florida with Chief Chihuahua and his people. Gatewood tells Geronimo that his family is in Florida and if he ever wants to see them again, he will have to surrender now and go there too. This was a lie. The Chiricahuas had not yet been exiled, but they soon would be.

Broken, Naiche decides to surrender. Many other hostiles surrender too. Geronimo, war-weary and missing his family, knows he cannot continue his struggle for freedom without them. Naiche and Geronimo surrender to General Miles at Skeleton Canyon, Arizona Territory, not far from present-day Douglas.

It was a momentous event in the history of the Apaches and the United States. On Route 80 south of Rodeo, New Mexico, near Apache, Arizona, stands a marker commemorating Geronimo's surrender. A short distance south of the marker is a road that leads east and then south/southeast to the actual surrender site.
NEXT: The Apache Wars: A Timeline Part 6


Lieutenant Charles B. Gatewood: Premier Cavalry Soldier of the American West

History affords the unique perspective of offering clarity through retrospection. Even though Lieutenant Charles B. Gatewood, using mutual respect and negotiation—not bullets and bravado—potentially saved the lives of countless cavalrymen, settlers, Native Americans, and Mexicans by ensuring Geronimo’s surrender in 1886 after years of contentious and bloody Indian wars, he was continually overlooked for promotion and denied a much-deserved Medal of Honor, awarded for personal acts of exceptional courage and valor—literally defined as “strength of mind in regard to danger.” Few would argue that standing face to face on a hot August day in Mexico with a justifiably enraged Geronimo and the son of Cochise took that strength of mind. Nevertheless, when Gatewood achieved a peaceful resolution to years of hard fighting, he displayed an uncommon valor worthy of our nation’s highest honor. The single opponent to his nomination argued that since Gatewood had not come under enemy fire during this event, he was unworthy of the award. However, history should accurately reflect the true impact of this quiet man who changed the face of the Southwest, using words and not weapons.

Shortly after graduating from West Point, Gatewood was assigned to the Arizona Territory and became one the Army premier “Apache men,” having developed a detailed knowledge of the Apaches and their customs and commanding detachments of Apache scouts. This photograph shows Apache scouts under Gatewood’s command encamped near the Mexican border in 1883. (National Archives)

Born in Woodstock, Virginia, on 6 April 1853 as the oldest son of newspaper editor John Gatewood and his wife Emily, Charles Bare Gatewood had a normal if not exceptional early childhood. This, however, would all change after epochal events in the United States would lead him toward a career in the military. When the Civil War erupted in 1861, eight-year old Charles saw his father march off to fight for the South. When John Gatewood returned, he moved his family to Harrisonburg, Virginia, where he opened a print shop and edited the Commonwealth, um jornal local. Charles would finish his education there and later briefly teach school before receiving an appointment to the U.S. Military Academy (USMA) at West Point in 1873 from Representative John T. Harris, M.C., of Harrisonburg.

Graduating with the West Point Class of 1877 on 14 June 1877, Gatewood was ranked twenty-third out of a class of seventy-six. The five-foot-eleven-inch Virginian was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 6th U.S. Cavalry. Henry Ossian Flipper, the first black graduate of USMA, was also a member of this class, as well as Thomas Henry Barry, the twenty-seventh Superintendent of USMA (1910-1912). The great majority of this notable class would see duty on the frontier and participation in the Indian Wars, with twenty-six reaching the rank of colonel, five brigadier general, and five major general. Gatewood, however, appeared destined to be overlooked continually for promotion.

By the time Major General George Crook (USMA 1852) assumed command of the Department of Arizona in July 1882, Lieutenant Gatewood had become one of the Army’s premier “Apache men.” He had become familiar with the Arizona Territory and commanded Apache scout units almost constantly since his arrival in the Southwest in January 1878. He had also taken part in the U.S. Army’s campaign against Apache chief Victorio in 1879-80. Gatewood’s life depended upon the scouts under his command accepting and obeying his orders at all times. Crook recognized Gatewood’s detailed knowledge of the Apaches and their customs. Because of this, in 1882, he appointed Gatewood as the military commandant of the White Mountain Indian Reservation, headquartered at Fort Apache, Arizona Territory. Gatewood’s inherent honesty of character, fairness, and respect for Apaches allowed him to excel in this assignment.

Gatewood (right) is shown here with Lieutenant M.F. Goodwin, 10th Cavalry, shortly after the conclusion of the Army’s campaign against Apache chief Victorio in 1880. At the time, Gatewood was serving in the 6th Cavalry. (Arquivos Nacionais)

Officers who drew Apache duty found it to be very demanding. Patrols often lasted for months. The harsh rigors of living in the field and the continued exposure to extreme weather and inhospitable terrain had consequences. As early as 1881, doctors reported that Gatewood “had rheumatism of knee, ankle, hip and shoulder, the result of exposure in line of duty in Arizona.” Gatewood’s declining health would plague him throughout his career.

On 17 May 1885, Geronimo and Apache Chief Naiche (son of Cochise and the last hereditary Apache chief of the Chokonen, or Chiricahua, tribes) fled the reservation with their band of followers and crossed the border into Mexico. Making periodic raids into the United States as well as in Mexico, they successfully eluded pursuit by both U.S. and Mexican troops. In March 1886, Crook met the warring Apaches at Cañón de los Embudos, Sonora, Mexico, to discuss their surrender. During the talks, Crook threatened and talked down to Geronimo. Although the Apaches surrendered and agreed to return to the United States, Geronimo, Naiche, and some followers feared for their lives and ran one last time on 28 March 1886. Crook resigned his command, and the Army replaced him with Brigadier General Nelson A. Miles. On 13 July 1886, after several attempts to apprehend Geronimo and his band met with failure, Miles asked Gatewood to “find Geronimo and Naiche in Mexico and demand their surrender.”

Displaying incredible skill and bravery, Gatewood and five others followed the Apaches and caught up with them on 25 August 1886 at a bend in the Bavispe River in the Teres Mountains in Mexico. Suddenly, however, the Apaches vanished. Several tense minutes passed before thirty-five or forty Chiricahua Apaches, including many heavily armed warriors, exploded out of the brush. Gatewood did not notice Geronimo among them but welcomed the Apaches cordially, removed his weapons, and passed out tobacco and paper. Everyone rolled cigarettes and smoked.

In March 1886, Crook met with Apache leaders Geronimo and Naiche at Cañón de los Embudos, Sonora, Mexico, to discuss the Apaches’ surrender. While Geronimo and Naiche agreed to terms and returned to Arizona , they once again fled to on 28 March to Mexico with a small group of Apaches. Crook resigned his command shortly thereafter the Army replaced him with Brigadier General Nelson A. Miles. (Arizona Historical Society, Tucson, PC 19 – #78166)

Geronimo then walked out of the brush and set his Winchester down, greeted Gatewood, and asked about his thinness (Gatewood was ill and extremely frail and gaunt). The two men sat together—too close, Gatewood would later note since he could feel Geronimo’s revolver. For a while they conversed in an English-Apache-Spanish pidgin dialect that allowed them to communicate with interpreters occasionally confirming their statements. When Gatewood delivered Miles’s surrender message, Geronimo wanted to know the terms. Gatewood replied, “Unconditional surrender!” The Apaches would be sent to Florida, where they would await President Grover Cleveland’s decision on their lives. Gatewood concluded by adding, “Accept these terms or fight it out to the bitter end.”

An angry Geronimo stared at Gatewood. After talking about a few other less profound issues, he spoke of all the bad that both countries, the United States and Mexico, had done to his people. Warrior tempers erupted, and the group of Apaches moved away from Gatewood so they could discuss the possible surrender. An hour later, they returned with Geronimo demanding terms similar to those offered in the past: “Take us to the reservation or fight.” Gatewood, however, could not do this. The atmosphere again turned tense, but before anything happened, Chief Naiche spoke up, saying Gatewood would not be harmed.

Geronimo holds a rifle in an iconic photograph of the Apache chief taken around 1887. (National Archives)

Breathing easier, Gatewood gambled and said that the remaining Chiricahuas in Arizona had been sent to Florida. Although untrue, he knew it would happen. An irate Geronimo and the Apaches spoke again between themselves. Nothing changed—they demanded a return to the reservation or they would fight. Danger loomed, but Gatewood kept his composure. Eventually Geronimo asked Gatewood what he would do. When Gatewood replied that he would accept Miles’s terms, Geronimo said he would announce their decision in the morning.

The next day, after Geronimo and Naiche agreed to return to the United States, Gatewood, realizing that his knowledge of the Apaches—especially the White Mountain Apaches—was unique, wrote a letter to his wife declaring that it was time for him to begin working on a memoir. Because of this, not only did he record Apache oral history before it became known as “oral history,” he documented arguably one of the most spectacular feats of the Indian Wars—meeting Naiche and Geronimo in Sonora, Mexico, talking them into surrendering, and getting them safely back to the States even though some within the Mexican and U.S. Armies wanted the famed Apache leaders dead.

As 1886 ended, Gatewood’s health once again began to fail. He had never recovered from the hardships suffered while in Mexico and the southwestern United States. As a result, the Army granted him an extended leave of absence. In May 1887, he returned to Miles’s headquarters (then in Los Angeles), where he served as aide-de-camp. In the fall of 1890, he re-joined the 6th U.S. Cavalry and was assigned to H Troop.

On 18 May 1892, a band of small ranchers and rustlers became enraged at the gunmen hired by the larger rancher owners in Johnson County, Wyoming. They set fire to the buildings at Fort McKinney, Wyoming, where the Army had confined a local cattle baron’s hired killers. The fire spread, threatening to destroy the entire post. Gatewood joined a small group of volunteers as they hurriedly placed cans of gunpowder in the burning buildings. The plan was to blow up the structures already engulfed in flames to save the remaining buildings. Suddenly, some burning rafters parted, fell, and prematurely detonated a can of powder. Gatewood was blown violently against the side of a building and badly injured.

This map shows the route Gatewood and his detachment followed as they pursued Geronimo and his band of Apaches. Gatewood’s party caught up with the Apaches in northern Mexico on 25 July 1886 and convinced the Indians to surrender. (Map courtesy of Louis Kraft)

Gatewood took a physical examination at Fort Custer, Montana, on 3 October 1892, with the following diagnosis: “Lieutenant Gatewood has suffered intermittently with articular rheumatism during the past twelve years. At present it exists in a sub acute form, and affects chiefly the right shoulder and hip. When combined with his injury from the explosion, which rendered his left arm almost completely disabled, the result was a foregone conclusion: Permanently disqualified physically to perform the duties of a captain of cavalry, and that his disability occurred in the line of duty.” Gatewood expected to be retired from the service but instead found himself remaining on the active duty roles as a member of the 6th Cavalry. Nevertheless, he was often on extended leaves of absence as the rapid deterioration of his health continued.

On 2 May 1895, Captain Augustus P. Blocksom recommended Lieutenant Gatewood for the Medal of Honor. It was endorsed by the commanding officer of the 6th Cavalry, Colonel D.B. Gordon, and the Commanding General of the Army, General Nelson A. Miles, but disapproved by Joseph B. Doe, Acting Secretary of War, on 24 June 1895 because Gatewood did not come under hostile fire during his pursuit of Geronimo and his band of Apaches. Gatewood had displayed extreme bravery. His services were extensive and, in fact, indispensable. Nevertheless, four Medals of Honor had been given to others during the efforts to capture Geronimo, but not to the one man instrumental in achieving the surrender.

The news greatly disappointed Gatewood. He spent the last year of his life nursing his ill health. The Army did, however, allow him to remain on the payroll instead of forcing him to retire. His health, however, continued to deteriorate, and he entered the hospital at Fort Monroe, Virginia, on 11 May 1896. On 20 May, he died from a malignant tumor in his liver. At the time of his death, he was forty-three years old and the senior lieutenant of his regiment, having never achieved the rank of captain after nineteen years service. Gatewood’s wife, Georgia, did not have enough money to bury her husband, so the Army arranged for burial in Arlington National Cemetery. Georgia survived the next twenty-four years on a pension of $17 a month she received from the government. She eventually moved to California to live with her son, “Charlie Junior,” born on 4 January 1883, at Fort Apache, Arizona Territory.

Charles B. Gatewood, Jr., was thirteen years old when his father died in 1896. He would later graduate from West Point with the Class of 1906 and retire as a colonel after thirty years service. Charles, Jr., launched a lifelong crusade to establish as record his father’s impact on the history of the Indian Wars. His fastidious and continuous effort to document his father’s participation in the last Apache war is now housed at the Arizona Historical Society in Tucson. Lieutenant Gatewood’s son laid the groundwork for authors such as Louis Kraft (quoted extensively in the second half of this article) to discover his father’s life and contributions.

Apache chiefs Naiche (left) and Geronimo stand for a photograph at Fort Bowie, Arizona Territory, in September 1886, shortly before they were transported to Florida. (Arquivos Nacionais)

The words of Major General Augustus Perry Blocksom, Gatewood’s West Point classmate who served as a lieutenant with Gatewood in the 6th Cavalry and also commanded Indian scouts, aptly captured the character of Charles Gatewood. Blocksom wrote Gatewood’s obituary for the annual reunion of the USMA Association of Graduates in 1896 which states: “His life was simple and unassuming. He suffered many hardships, but his kind heart, genial humor, and gentle manners always gave evidence that nature had created him a true gentleman. His work was done in a comparatively limited field, and was unknown to and therefore unappreciated by the vast majority of our people but to us who knew him and his deeds so well, it seems hard that he should have received no just reward for his services. His name is still on the lips of the people of Arizona and New Mexico, and will not soon be forgotten by his comrades in the Indian campaigns.”

One might wonder how such an instrumental figure in America’s westward expansion such as Lieutenant Charles Gatewood could have escaped acclaim and, at minimum, placement in archives of those most interested in the all-important period of our country’s history following the Civil War. Thanks to Gatewood’s own proclivity for language and his desire to record the oral history of the Apaches—not to mention the dedication of his son, Charles, Jr., to preserving the legacy of his late father—future writers of note, such as acclaimed author and historian Louis Kraft, would become interested in the life of Lieutenant Gatewood, whose story attracts compassion and spurs that uniquely American desire to help the underdog—or those apparently treated unfairly—in the annals of history.

In a recent discussion with Kraft, much of the background surrounding the “Gatewood Enigma” became clear. To be sure, it is a story rife jealously and ambition—none of which appear to have emanated from Gatewood himself but from those close to him and envious of his accomplishments. Fortunately, Gatewood’s memories of the Apaches are as special as his achievements, as evident in a number of chapters he drafted for a book he planned to complete. Sadly, his premature death at age forty-three prevented him from finishing the project. Kraft generously offered to discuss how his personal interest in Gatewood turned into a quest to set the record straight.

Just before Kraft’s first book on the Apache Wars, Gatewood & Geronimo (University of New Mexico Press, 2000), moved toward publication, he realized how much of Gatewood’s experiences among the Apaches would not be told because of page limitations. Gatewood’s words would then remain in obscurity for another year until Kraft decided to contact the Arizona Historical Society to ask for permission to compile Gatewood’s notes into a readable manuscript. He then pieced together and edited the lieutenant’s writing, which became Lt. Charles Gatewood & His Apache Wars Memoir (University of Nebraska Press, 2005), resulting in a major reference for both researchers and historians. Kraft has also written extensively about cavalry operations in the American West, including a book on George Armstrong Custer. Few author/historians are as qualified as Kraft to assess the level of bravery inherent in Gatewood’s actions when confronting Geronimo.

A group of Apaches, including Naiche, Geronimo, and Geronimo’s son, sit before a railroad car that will take them to Florida and captivity, 10 September 1886. The Apaches would later end up at Fort Sill, Indian Territory (later Oklahoma) until 1913, when the U.S. government allowed them to settle on reservations in Oklahoma and New Mexico. (Arquivos Nacionais)

Kraft further explained how his interest in Gatewood first occurred, an interest which has grown and been reinforced by others over the years. “My initial visit to the Gatewood Collection at the Arizona Historical Society in Tucson spurred my interest and encouraged what has become a passion. I didn’t know anything about Charles Gatewood and never thought I would write about him. However, when I stumbled upon him I was floored.” Kraft continued, “The history of the Indian Wars had relegated him to a minor character—read, he served his country, period. Perhaps Generals Miles and Crook (especially Miles) are responsible for this—it is shocking that Gatewood never rose above lieutenant when almost every other officer serving in Mexico in 1886 retired or died a colonel or general. There are superstars in the West (Custer, Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse, Geronimo, Earp, Holliday, Cody, Hickok, Crockett, Carson to name a few) and then there are major players (Crook, Miles, Roman Nose, Black Kettle, Naiche, Ned Wynkoop, Chivington again to name a few—this list is much longer). Telling Gatewood’s story was almost heresy. The plus is that now Gatewood is a player and will someday appear in documentaries. Hopefully others will learn more about him and put their findings to words for even though he was only a lieutenant, he played a major role in the last Apache war—and even more so if one considers his stand for human rights.” Kraft further added, “Gatewood was slender, tall, and at times struggled with his health. The Apaches called him ‘Bay-chen-daysen,’ which means big nose. Contemporaries considered him quiet, cool, courageous, intolerant of injustice, and honest, but the trait that best served him was his ability to accept and treat fairly the Apaches he commanded and oversaw on the White Mountain Indian Reservation.”

Kraft continued: “Perhaps the most unusual aspect of the valor of Lieutenant Gatewood on that day with Geronimo was that far from a brash bit of bravado his actions were rather an intelligent display of an incredible understanding of his foe. Yet, the essential question sustains: Why did he succeed when a force of 5,000 cavalrymen had failed?” For Kraft, it came down to the fact that “First, American and Mexican troops intended to hunt down and kill the Apaches, and the Indians knew this. Gatewood, who they knew, entered their camp with three interpreters, an Apache scout who was related to band members, and maybe one soldier. He did not come to kill, and the story he told of the removal of their people in Arizona to Florida, even if it had not happened yet, sounded true. This would give them nothing to return to if they re-crossed the border. Also, they knew that it was a matter of time before other soldiers caught and killed them.” Kraft contends that Gatewood offered Geronimo and the Apaches “the best deal they could possibly get—return to the United States, exile to a place called Florida where they would be reunited with the rest of their people, and the promise to return to their homeland sometime in the future. Gatewood offered them a chance to live, and they took it.”

As for Gatewood’s lack of fame, Kraft stated that “people wonder why history has forgotten this man. General Nelson Miles is the major culprit here, as he did everything possible to ensure that his command, the 4th U.S. Cavalry, got all the credit for the capture of Geronimo and the last of the warring Apaches—about thirty-eight people, including warriors, women, and children. Gatewood belonged to the 6th U.S. Cavalry, Crook’s regiment at the time. Crook had previously turned his back on Gatewood when the lieutenant refused to drop charges against a territorial judge for defrauding the White Mountain Apaches and had no intention of supporting Gatewood when Miles attempted to remove his name from the surrender of the Apaches.

“After the surrender of Geronimo, Gatewood would become an aide-de-camp to General Miles but always seemed to remain an outsider and few understand why,” said Kraft. “Again, Miles wanted all the glory to go to the 4th Cavalry. Ridiculous as it sounds, Gatewood was known as a ‘Crook man.’ In November 1887, a year after the Apaches surrendered, Tucson, Arizona Territory, hosted a festival to honor Miles and the 4th Cavalry at the San Xavier Hotel. The general made certain that the ‘Crook man’ did not attend by ordering him to remain at headquarters, which further distanced the lieutenant from the events that ended the war. At the celebration, when Miles was asked about Gatewood’s participation in the surrender, Miles stated that he ‘was sick of this adulation of Lieutenant Gatewood, who only did his duty.’”

In 1895, while serving as Commanding General of the Army, Major General Nelson A. Miles was one of the officers who endorsed Gatewood for the Medal of Honor for his pursuit of Geronimo in 1886, but it was disapproved by acting Secretary of the Army Joseph B. Doe because Gatewood’s actions did not come under hostile fire. (U.S. Army Military History Institute)

Kraft added that “During the celebration, when Gatewood realized that some of Miles’ servants were on the Army’s payroll, he refused to sign the order for them to be paid as ‘bearers,’ as it was against military regulations. If we can believe Gatewood’s wife, Georgia, this angered Miles, who looked for ways to court-martial her husband. Gatewood was a first lieutenant and Miles’s officers were lieutenants or captains during the hunt for Geronimo that summer and fall of 1886. Nevertheless, all Miles’s officers retired or died with the rank of colonel or general, while Gatewood was still a first lieutenant at the time of his death, next in line via the seniority rule to become a captain. The military even refused to award Gatewood the Medal of Honor for his extraordinary feat, as it was not performed during the heat of battle.” Kraft further added, “In my humble opinion this was a sad statement about U.S. Army values.”

The 1993 movie, Geronimo: An American Legend, which featured Gatewood as a central character (played by Jason Patric), brought his name to an unaware American public, even though the film was filled with inaccuracies. Kraft said the movie was actually his introduction to the lieutenant as well and added, “Britton Davis (played by Matt Damon), a lifelong friend of Gatewood was just out of West Point when Geronimo (Wes Studi) crossed the border in 1884 to be escorted back to the reservation by Gatewood (who did not perform this duty—Davis did). It was not until I began researching the books that I realized that although the film pretends to be factual, it is fiction from the beginning to end.” Kraft stated that it mixes up events and dates, and often places characters in events in which they never participated. “Geronimo never made a great shot to scare off a posse. At the time of the film, Gatewood rode a mule, commanded Apache scouts and not troopers, and never killed an Apache warrior in one-on-one combat,” said Kraft. “Also, he never tracked the recalcitrant Apaches with Chatto (Steve Reevis) and Al Sieber (Robert Duvall). There was no shootout with scalp hunters in a cantina, Davis was not with Gatewood in 1886, and the lieutenant was not hit or harmed when he met the Apaches and talked them into returning to the United States. The errors are endless.”

Kraft continued to discuss additional inaccuracies, saying, “Actually Lieutenant Britton Davis resigned his commission in 1885, which did not become official until 1886, and later wrote The Truth About Geronimo (Yale University Press, 1929). Davis wrote this about Gatewood: ‘Cool, quiet, courageous firm when convinced of right but intolerant of wrong with a thorough knowledge of Apache character.” Davis was a good soldier and a fair administrator of the Apaches at Turkey Creek, a forested area east of Fort Apache. His compassion for the Apaches, along with the rough excursion he survived in Mexico in 1885, contributed to his disillusionment with the Army, the U.S.’s treatment of the Apaches, and his decision to resign his commission. The fact that Gatewood did not totally fade into oblivion is in large part due to Lieutenant Davis and his book.”

In discussing Geronimo, Kraft said, “While Geronimo would live a long life, dying while still incarcerated in 1909, he was never permitted to return to his native lands despite pleas to President Theodore Roosevelt. Geronimo recounted his life to S. M. Barrett, who assembled it as Geronimo: sua própria história (reprinted by E.P. Dutton in 1970).” Still many historians still ponder why Geronimo trusted Lieutenant Gatewood—or if he ever regretted that later in life. Kraft stated he believes that “by the summer of 1886 Gatewood’s fair handling of the White Mountain Indian reservation and his ability to deal with Apache scouts in the field were well known to the Apaches. They knew that Gatewood did not lie and would buck the military if he thought the Apaches had been wronged. There were not many white men who would do this. Daklugie, Chief Juh’s (pronounced ‘Who’) son translated Geronimo’s words for Barrett and said that Geronimo regretted trusting Miles, who had lied to him. But he never blamed Gatewood for the general’s perfidy.”

In the conclusion of his commentary, Kraft expressed hope for continued attention for Gatewood “…whose actions during his entire tenure with the Apaches were exemplary. He quickly viewed them as human beings who should be treated as such. Gatewood was a most special man, and more historical papers such as this will encourage sustained and justified interest in his life. One must remember that during the Indian Wars there weren’t many white men on the frontier who would put their careers at risk and stand up for a people whose entire way of life was coming to an end, as the citizens of the United States carved their new land.”


Conteúdo

The canyon was the site of several battles during the American Old West. In 1879, a group of outlaw Cowboys attacked a group of Mexican Rurales and stole their cattle. In July 1881, Curly Bill Brocius attacked and killed about a dozen Mexican smugglers carrying silver and heading to the United States. In retribution, the Mexican government attacked and killed Newman Haynes Clanton and others as they were driving cattle through Guadalupe Canyon. In 1883, Apache Indians from Chihuahua's band surprised eight troopers of Troop D, Fourth Cavalry, killed three men, burned the wagons and supplies, and drove off forty horses and mules. [1]

Geronimo's final surrender to General Nelson A Miles on September 4, 1886, occurred at the western edge of this canyon. As the surrender site is now on private property, commemorative monument has been erected to the northwest along SR 80, where it intersects with Skeleton Canyon Road in Arizona, at geographic coordinates 31°41′28″N 109°07′56″W  /  31.69111°N 109.13222°W  / 31.69111 -109.13222 . The mouth of the canyon lies about 9.5 mi (15.3 km) to the southeast just west of the Arizona – New Mexico line. [2]

On November 4, 1889 Judson "Comanche" White was found dead in Skeleton Canyon after being killed by persons or persons unknown all his possession had been stolen as well. [4]

On August 12, 1896 a shoot-out between the Christian gang and a posse resulted in the Skeleton Canyon shootout.

  1. ^ umab Hurst, George (January 9, 2003). "Geronimo's surrender — Skeleton Canyon, 1886". Archived from the original on 26 August 2015 . Retrieved 24 October 2014 .
  2. ^ umabChiricahua Peak, Arizona – New Mexico, 30x60 Minute Topographic Quadrangle, USGS 1994
  3. ^
  4. "Skeleton Canyon". Ghost Towns . Retrieved 2013-03-18 .
  5. ^The Deseret News November 7, 1889

This Cochise County, Arizona location article is a stub. Você pode ajudar a Wikipedia expandindo-a.

This New Mexico state location article is a stub. Você pode ajudar a Wikipedia expandindo-a.


Geronimo – A Brief History

The Geronimo Trail Scenic Byway is named for Geronimo, a famous Apache warrior. He was born Goyakla, meaning ‘one who yawns,’ in the 1820s near the headwaters of the Gila River. This would be in the Gila Wilderness area of Southwestern New Mexico today. He was born into the Bedonkohe Chiricahua tribe.

His early life was peaceful until the 1850s when the Bedonkohe group went to Mexico to trade with the Mexicans in a town the Apaches called Kas-ki-yeh. The women and children remained in camp while the men went into town. When they returned, they discovered that Mexicans from a nearby town had attacked the camp and massacred the women and children. Among those killed were Geronimo’s widowed mother, wife and three children. When the Apaches attacked the town in revenge, Geronimo fought so wildly that the Mexicans cried out to San Geronimo (Saint Jerome) for aid. The name became applied to Geronimo and stuck.

Geronimo spent most of the rest of his life seeking revenge. He became a war leader and led many raids on Mexican towns and villages, as well as settlements in southwestern New Mexico and southeastern Arizona.

By the 1870s, the European immigration of settlers was well underway. The Apache threat was so intense that the reservation system was created with the Army controlling the Apaches from raids. Most of the Chiricahua tribes were removed to the San Carlos reservation in southeast Arizona.

Geronimo left the reservation on raiding parties frequently. In 1883 he and his band sought refuge on the Warm Springs Reservation at Ojo Caliente, north of Winston, NM. The Indian agent, John Clum, found out he was there, and took a group of Indian scouts to arrest Geronimo. They set a trap and he was surrounded and captured. Because of this incident, the Government decided to close the Reservation at Ojo Caliente and move the Warm Springs Apaches to San Carlos with the other Chiricahua tribes.

Geronimo continued to escape from the reservation and lead raiding parties. He and his band of less than 150, mostly women and children, eluded General Crook and over 3,000 soldiers for some time. Apache scouts were finally used to track him and talk him into surrender so the Apaches could be reunited with their families. They were told they would be able to settle on a reservation in their homelands after a few years of exile. Crook’s superior officer reversed this decision, and Geronimo and several other Apaches fled again.

General Nelson A. Miles led a pursuit with 42 companies of U.S. Cavalry and 4,000 Mexican soldiers. Again the Apache scouts had to locate Geronimo and persuade him to surrender peacefully. The agreement was made September 4, 1886 in Skeleton Canyon, near present day Douglas, Arizona, with a promise of the Apaches being pardoned and reunited with their families. Miles also promised that Geronimo’s people would be granted a reservation in their homeland.

All the Chiricahua groups were sent by train to Florida where the warriors were detained for a year at Fort Pickens and their families at Fort Marion. The children of school age were shipped to the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania to be educated into the ‘White Man’s’ ways. The following year the warriors were reunited with their families at Mount Vernon, Alabama. Because the Apaches were from the dry desert climates of the southwest, the high humidity in Florida and Alabama lowered their resistance to diseases such as tuberculosis and many died. In 1894 they were moved to Ft. Sill, Oklahoma, which was a more agreeable climate for them.

Geronimo lived at Ft. Sill until his death in 1909, when he would have been in his mid-80s. During his later life he became a celebrity, making appearances at the 1898 Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, the 1901 Pan American Exposition, and the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition. He rode with several Chiefs in Theodore Roosevelt’s inaugural parade in 1905, after which he was given a personal audience with the President. He pled to be returned home to his homeland. This wish was not to be granted. The following winter he fell off his horse, laid in a cold ditch through the night, and died a few days later of pneumonia.

Because of Geronimo and the Apache love of the Black Range and southwestern New Mexico, it is fitting that the scenic byway be named for a man whose spirit remained with this country he considered his homeland.


Para maiores informações

Barrett, S. M. Geronimo's Story of His Life. New York: Duffield and Company, 1906.

Debo, Angie. Geronimo: The Man, His Time, His Place. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1976.

Hermann, Spring. Geronimo: Apache Freedom Fighter. Springfield, NJ: Enslow Publishers, 1997.

Kent, Zachary. The Story of Geronimo. Chicago: Children's Press, 1989.

Mancall, Peter C.Deadly Medicine: Indians and Alcohol in Early America. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995.

Miles, Nelson. Personal Recollections. New York: Werner, 1897.

Shorto, Russell. Geronimo and the Struggle for Apache Freedom. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver Burdett Press, 1989.

Wyatt, Edgar. Geronimo: The Last Apache War Chief. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1952.


Assista o vídeo: Geronimo movie clip Talks of surrender or no (Junho 2022).